WebGL

https://webglfundamentals.org/

WebGL 是 Web Graphics Libray 的缩写。WebGL只是一个栅格化(rasterization)引擎,算不上一个3D API。它只能画点、线和三角形。WebGL 运行在 GPU(Graphics processing unit)上。

Code in the form of pairs of functions. 2 functions: a vertex shader and a fragment shader, written in very strictly typed C/C++ like language called GLSL. Paired together they are called a program.

Role:

  • vertex shader(顶点着色器) – compute vertex position. 基于这些位置,函数输出 WebGL 可以栅格化各种基元,包括点、线或三角形。When rasterizing these primitives it calls a second user supplied function called a fragment shader.
  • fragment shader(片段着色器) – compute a color for each pixel of the primitive currently being drawn.

什么是 Shader?(Wikipedia

In computer graphics, a shader is a computer program that calculates the appropriate levels of light, darkness, and color during the rendering of a 3D scene - a process known as shading.

什么是 vertex shader?(Wikipedia

Vertex shaders are the most established and common kind of 3D shader and are run once for each vertex given to the graphics processor. The purpose is to transform each vertex's 3D position in virtual space to the 2D coordinate at which it appears on the screen (as well as a depth value for the Z-buffer).

什么是 fragment shader?(Wikipedia

Pixel shaders, also known as fragment shaders, compute color and other attributes of each "fragment": a unit of rendering work affecting at most a single output pixel.

几乎所有 WebGL API 都是关于配置状态的,这是为这对函数的运行做准备。WebGL is really just an API to run shaders. The only functions that actually write pixels are gl.clear, gl.drawArrays and gl.drawElements. All other API calls just setup internal state for when those 3 functions are called.(WebGL State diagram

来自 WebGL State diagram 的一些提示:

  1. A programs only indirectly reference textures via texture units by index. Similarly programs only indirectly reference buffers via vertex array attribute index. The arrows showing these connection are dotted to indicate they are not direct connections. Program attributes are not connected to a specific vertex array nor are program uniforms connected to a particular texture.
  2. Not all state is shown.

For each thing you want to draw you setup a bunch of state then execute a pair of functions by calling gl.drawArrays or gl.drawElements which executes your shaders on the GPU.

Any data you want those functions to have access to must be provided to the GPU. There are 4 ways a shader can receive data.

  1. Attributes and Buffers

Buffers 是一组上传到 GPU 的二进制数据。

Attributes 用于从 Buffers 中提取数据,并将其提供给你的顶点着色器。

For example you might put positions in a buffer as three 32bit floats per position. You would tell a particular attribute which buffer to pull the positions out of, what type of data it should pull out (3 component 32 bit floating point numbers), what offset in the buffer the positions start, and how many bytes to get from one position to the next.

Buffers are not random access. Instead a vertex shader is executed a specified number of times. Each time it's executed the next value from each specified buffer is pulled out and assigned to an attribute.

  1. Uniforms(某种数学术语)

韦氏词典解释中的较贴切的一条:

relating to or being convergence of a series whose terms are functions in such manner that the absolute value of the difference between the sum of the first n terms of the series and the sum of all terms can be made arbitrarily small for all values of the domain of the functions by choosing the nth term sufficiently far along in the series

Uniforms are effectively global variables you set before you execute your shader program.

  1. Textures

Sharder 程序中可以随机访问的一组数据。The most common thing to put in a texture is image data but textures are just data and can just as easily contain something other than colors.

  1. Varyings

Varyings 是一种将数据从顶点着色器传递给片段着色器的方式。

WebGL Hello World:

WebGL只关心两件事:clip space coordinates and colors. 其中,前者由顶点着色器提供,后者由片段着色器提供。

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